21.6. Regulation of fatty acid synthesis
Allosteric Control – This is sudden or short term control in which enzymes can be controlled by covalent modification.
Hormonal Control – hormones affect the enzyme and regulate the process of lipid synthesis.
- Acetyl CoA Carboxylase – this enzyme catalyze the rate limiting step of this process. It is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation by protein kinases. Citrate acts as activator for this enzyme.
- Glucagon – it inhibits glycolysis by inactivating PFK enzyme so thereby decrease in the synthesis of citrate in Krebs cycle. So decrease in citrate inactivates the acetyl CoA carboxylase and reduces fatty acid synthesis.
- Insulin – it acts in contrast to glucagon. It enhances citrate there by activating AcetylCoA carboxylase and more lipid synthesis.